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※ SDGs The Sustainable Development Goals are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all.


233 . Anguilla Quality education for all

In 2012, poor students in rural Colombia were learning at levels far below their rich peers (Bos et al. 2014). Colombia needed to close the large learning gap across socioeconomic groups and regions to ensure that all students had a fair chance to realize their dreams. With the realization that limited and poor-quality educational resources were hampering learning in the most disadvantaged schools, the Colombian government sought to harness the power of information and communication technology (ICT) to provide quality education to every corner of the country. In 2012, the Colombian Ministry of National Education partnered with the Republic of Korea to launch the Building ICT in Education Capacity in Colombia project. Through this partnership, the education ministry began to train content developers, administrators, and teachers across the nation to produce, manage, and use digital educational content. The idea was that if more teachers had access to a range of digital educational content—and the skills to use them in classes—students across the country would receive a better education.

232 . Anguilla Building a dam and irrigation system to help farmers in Isabela, the Philippines, adapt to climate change, 2011–18

Farmers in Isabela, a province in the Philippines, have long suffered from natural disasters such as flooding and drought. In recent years, climate change has made life even more difficult for farmers in the area. Droughts lasted longer, typhoons became more frequent, and the timing of seasons varied unexpectedly, making it difficult for farmers to predict rainfall. Most farmers in the region depended solely on rainfall to cultivate crops, which meant they could harvest only once a year. As a consequence, farms had low productivity, and many farmers struggled to get by. In 2009, the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA), the Republic of Korea’s international aid organization, launched the East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP), and the Philippines became a partner country of the EACP. In 2010, the government of the Philippines requested EACP support for areas in the Philippines suffering the effects of climate change. The government wanted to build irrigation structures and better manage watersheds, areas of land that drain or “shed” water into rivers and lakes, to prevent flooding and provide farmers with a more consistent water supply. The irrigation structures would impound and store excess water to be used for agriculture or domestic purposes. The governments of Korea and the Philippines together selected Isabela as the site where they would build a dam and irrigation canals. The province was the second largest rice and corn production region in the Philippines, and irrigation systems could help farmers in Isabela increase crop yields and improve the area’s resilience to climate change.

231 . Anguilla Catalyzing female leadership and participation in rural development

This case study examines the emergence of the Saemaul Undong Women's Association in the Republic of Korea from 1972 to 1979. This initiative was carried out as part of the Saemaul Undong (New Village Movement), a nationwide community development project. The Saemaul Undong combined top-down aspects, in that it was mandated and directed by the central govenerment, and bottom-up aspects, in that villages had broad leeway in terms of the projects that they took on at the local level. The same was true for the Saemaul Women's Associations. One important aspect of the Saemaul Undong was its encouragement of women’s leadership in village projects. In 1973, the Saemaul Women’s Association was established as a branch organization of the Saemaul Undong. After the establishment of the SWA, each village had one male and one female Saeumaul leader, who were tasked with organizing village members to undertake a variety of local development projects – ranging from reforestation and building small bridges to the creation of village savings and improved agriculture programs, like planting orchards and building greenhouses. The program-within-a-program of the SWA, and the building up of women’s leadership that this entailed, has been credited with significantly changing women’s roles in rural society; with inspiring them to participate in village life; and with possibly having a long-term effect on such markers of women’s empowerment as increased school enrollment for girls. In turn, studies of the Saemaul Undong, as well as observers at the time, have in many cases highlighted the idea that women’s participation was a critical driver for the success of Saemaul Undong. The notion that women worked harder than men to carry out the Saemaul Undong is widespread, and contemporary publications praise their “iron-willed” determination. Indeed, the governor of Jeonlabugdo commented that in his view the Saemaul Undong was led by women. Yet this effort was not without challenges. This case study examines how women’s leadership was promoted and integrated into Saemaul Undong, and some of the delivery challenges that it faced during the course of that process. The parameters of the program were determined by national-level policy makers, but given the locally-led nature of village development projects in the Saemaul Undong, experiences varied widely, as each village – and each local Saemaul Women’s Association – attempted to implement experiments at the local level. Thus, while the program-within-a-program of women’s empowerment was promoted by national authorities, it was ultimately the women themselves, working with persistence within the specific contexts of their villages, who ensured the success of the Saemaul women’s programs at the village level.

230 . Anguilla “It takes a village to raise a child”

Malabon City has long been one of the areas with the highest rates of malnutrition in the capital region of the Philippines. In 2013, 16.3 percent of children in the city were stunted, or short for their age because of low nutritional intake. Stunting causes diminished cognitive and physical development, which limits the productive capacity of children. The high stunting rate meant a huge loss in human capital potential for the city. The city’s Nutrition Office had found it difficult to reduce the incidence of malnutrition because of budgetary constraints and a lack of awareness among mothers and caregivers about proper child nutrition. In 2014, the local government started to prioritize eliminating malnutrition by drafting a comprehensive nutrition plan that involved attracting donors and educating mothers. The city encouraged businesses to donate goods and facilitated community participation in delivering feeding programs. The city also encouraged mothers to attend family development sessions and provided school supplies, groceries, and free meals to participants. By 2017, the city had cut stunting rates to 5.13 percent.

229 . Anguilla Improving Access to Financial Services in Poor Communities

Across The Gambia, many people lack access to basic financial services that would allow them to borrow and save money. The problem is particularly prevalent in rural areas, where very few banks have branches, and as a result, most rural dwellers—particularly women—remain unbanked. Without savings or access to credit, families struggle to grow their income and improve their wellbeing. To address the problem, Irish Aid, Ireland’s international development aid organization, funded Improving Access to Pro-Poor Financial Services in Sierra Leone and The Gambia, a project launched in 2015 by the National Association of Cooperative Credit Unions of The Gambia (NACCUG) (Dalzell and O’Sullivan 2018). The initiative aimed to provide financial services to poor rural communities by helping credit unions—membership-based financial cooperatives—to implement “graduation microfinance,” a loan system for groups of people who do not individually qualify for credit union membership. After paying back a loan as a group, each group member would became eligible to join the credit union as a full member. However, NACCUG first had to convince the credit unions to make group loans in the targeted communities as well as find a way to teach financial management skills to people with little or no formal education. The project facilitated the creation of 39 graduation microfinance groups with more than 600 active saving members and 300 borrowers. By May 2018, 93 individuals had graduated to full credit union membership. The project helped create a culture of saving in the targeted areas in rural parts of The Gambia and helped women in those communities improve how they managed their finances. The 600-plus active saving members who participated in the project can now access loans to invest in their businesses and can use the profits to pay for household expenses and their children’s education.

228 . Anguilla Overcoming the not-in-my-backyard phenomenon in waste management

Proper waste disposal is difficult, especially when no one wants disposal facilities in his or her neighborhood. A sound waste management plan has to consider both environmental sustainability and the wishes of the local community. In Seoul’s case, it took two decades of efforts to develop consensus on building and operating incinerators in the Republic of Korea’s capital city to dispose of residents’ waste. City officials held hundreds of open discussions to provide information on waste disposal and to listen to local residents’ concerns. Incorporating citizens’ demands, the government introduced stringent standards for pollutant emissions and related control systems, and it provided compensation to residents in the affected residential areas. At the same time that it built incinerators to dispose of the city’s trash, the government introduced new energy and recycling policies that made energy production more efficient and reduced waste generation. Those policies made residents’ heating and electricity bills more affordable and reduced the total amount of waste the city had to dispose of. Between 1991 and 2005, the city built four waste incineration facilities located in areas that collectively housed about 13,000 residents. The facilities operate harmoniously within those communities under the voluntary watch of residents. By 2013, the incinerators processed almost 80 percent of Seoul’s nonrecyclable municipal waste—a dramatic change compared with the late 1980s, when more than 90 percent of the city’s waste was dumped in a single landfill site.

227 . Anguilla Implementing holistic security strategies to reduce crime and violence in Ecuador

Controlling crime, violence and insecurity is a great challenge in many parts of the developing world. By 2008, Ecuador had seen a worrisome increase in its rate of violent crimes, most emblematically the homicide rate that reached 18.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The government demonstrated a weak capacity to prevent and react to crimes and other risks, as well as a little capacity for joint work among institutions to cope with the worsening crime rate. Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean – the most violent region in the world – have experienced high rates of insecurity due to violent crime. However, Ecuador dramatically reduced this level of violence. By 2016, homicides had fallen to 5 per 100,000 inhabitants, and seven of the crimes that most affect citizen security had decreased. Several innovative measures contributed to the remarkable change in the country. The state expanded the use of technology, including video surveillance in cities and transports, and the gathering and use of statistical data to allow georeferencing of hot spots, in order to better allocate resources for crime prevention and to respond to other threats. Another element was the creation of the SYS-ECU-911, a system for national coordination among public agencies, as well as with private organizations and NGOs that receive and meet the needs of citizens; SYS-ECU-911 enabled organizations to better deal with emergencies reported by citizens dialing 911, and siting security infrastructure where needed by citizens. The SYS has optimized the response time to respond to emergencies. Last, but not least, the government adopted policies and public actions based on certified data, with its Government by Results system to meet objectives, analysis of hot spots to prevent risks, and decentralization policies to bring its responses closer to citizens and their ground-level realities. This enabled public security institutions to work in accordance with the realities of each zone, which improved public perception of the government's efforts to combat crime, address emergencies, and advance integrated security.

226 . Anguilla The on-nara system for task and document management

The On-nara system originally developed and used from 2004 as an administrative information system in the presidential office is a primary back-office information system in government through which Korean public officials could handle task and document management on a daily basis. The system allows government officials to be more effective and accountable by easily communicating and sharing documents with other public officials as well as by identifying those who work with and change documents in the course of administrative work in governments. Despite the potential usefulness of the system, it was not welcomed by many public officials and faced the bureaucratic resistance that is often seen toward e-government systems. This case study highlights how the Korean government effectively coped with delivery challenges such as lack of coordination and poor engagement of public officials particularly in the course of scaling up a new ICT system in the public sector. Delivery challenges were effectively overcome through strategic use of performance management in the scale-up process, promoting positive examples and stimulating leadership, swift and effective responses to technical problems, and provision of helpdesks and training programs to ease bureaucratic resistance and complaints about the new system.

225 . Anguilla Improving public transportation in the Seoul metropolitan area

The Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) suffered from severe congestion and auto-related pollution in the early 2000s. One way to mitigate these problems was to promote mass transit. Public transportation in the SMA consisted of the Metro (subway train) and bus transit. The bus system, however, was functioning poorly; its service quality was deteriorating and it was losing passengers continuously. In 2004, the newly elected mayor, Myung Bak Lee, launched the “Public Transport Reform Program.” This case study will examine how this program tackled the important development challenge of improving the bus system throughout the SMA.” It will also examine how implementers dealt with delivery challenges, including issues with stakeholder engagement, and implemented a variety of tools of the reform: quasi- public bus operation/management, installation of exclusive median lanes, adoption of Metro-bus integrated T-money fare system, and centrally-controlled bus operation/ management system. The city first organized the Bus Reform Citizens Committee (BRCC) to strengthen stakeholder engagement and gain support from various interest groups, including concerned citizens, academia and NGOs. The city government also formed the Public Transport Promotion Task Force as an advisory group; this task force included transportation experts from inside and outside city government, including senior transport planners from the Seoul Institute. Contributions by the think tank group of the Bus Reform Task Force in the Seoul Institute were particularly critical, as they directly supported the mayor’s bus reform team and the BRCC by frequently conducting research studies and disseminating relevant information. The application of ICT significantly contributed to the successful implementation, particularly the T-money (smart card) and advanced ITS. The smart card helped consolidate the Metro with the bus transit system through an integrated single fare system, while advanced ITS activated the TOPIS (Seoul Transport Operation & Information Service). The combination of the two made it possible to implement the BMS successfully. Finally, the use of both the exclusive median bus lane and colour- coded bus identification scheme significantly contributed to the success of the bus reform; the former helped inter- regional, long distance buses speed up, and the latter allowed citizens to more easily access the bus they needed. The reform program led to a significant increase in bus speed, as well as substantial increase in bus ridership thanks to improvement in service quality (comfort, convenience, safety, and punctuality, as well as making the bus transit reliable and compatible with the Metro). And both discounted fare and easy inter-modal transfer helped increase Metro ridership as well. The two systems became complementary, rather than substitutes. Accordingly, the number of private automobiles significantly decreased, especially during the rush hours, resulting in substantially attenuating congestion and pollution. Major success factors for the bus system reform included strong leadership from the mayor, an enabling governance structure, organizational skill and capability, strong use of ICT, and research support to the reform.

224 . Anguilla Implementing a real name financial transaction system to increase transparency and reduce corruption

A real-name financial transaction system (RNFTS) requires that the real name of an individual or a legal entity be used in financial transactions, subject to verification by some form of identification. By enhancing the integrity and transparency of financial transactions, RNFTS aims to address the development challenge of reducing corruption and promoting fair taxation. Introducing RNFTS entails basically two types of delivery challenges: technical and political economy. The technical challenge has to do with setting up data infrastructure and dealing with verification and transition problems while safeguarding financial privacy. The political economy challenge has to do with overcoming the resistance of those who wanted to keep financial transactions secret. Since the early 1980s, successive governments in Korea acknowledged the imperative of financial transparency and integrity, but their commitment to implement the requisite reform fluctuated depending on political and economic conditions. In fact, although technical challenges associated with RNFTS had been largely addressed by the mid-1980s, political economy issues prevented its implementation until 1993. Introducing RNFTS is generally regarded as a case of concentrated costs and dispersed benefits, where reform-minded citizens must play entrepreneurial politics to mobilize the support of the general public to overcome the resistance of the powerful vested interest. However, under certain conditions, it may more resemble a case of concentrated costs and concentrated benefits, where a few reformers derive a disproportionate share of benefits against their political rivals. In Korea’s case, the payoff structure associated with RNFTS seems to have gone through this shift from the 1980s to 1993.